Engineering
Engineering
Exhibit items on the subject of engineering.
Exhibit Items
On Bees Stelluti, Francesco (1625) In this postersized work, the first publication of observations made with a microscope, Cesi and Stelluti studied the anatomy of the bee. The text includes classical references to bees as well as new knowledge, integrated in a tabular outline. 

The Divine Proportion Pacioli, Luca (1509) Consider this geometrical drawing, portrayed with true perspective and a mastery of light and shadow. It comes from a treatise on art and mathematics by Luca Pacioli, yet it was not drawn by Pacioli. 

Works… A New Science Tartaglia, Niccolo (1606) Niccolò Tartaglia argued for the use of mathematics in physics, engineering and art. Tartaglia’s frontispiece shows Euclid guarding the gate of knowledge. Just inside, Perspectiva stands among the sciences that open the way to Philosophia. 

Starry Messenger Galileo, (1610) Featuring Galileo's Handwriting. When Galileo heard news of telescopes invented in the Netherlands he worked out the underlying geometry and crafted one of his own design. In this work, Galileo published the first observations of the heavens made with the telescope. 

The Optics of the Eye Chérubin d’ Orléans, (1671) In this illustration, Chérubin d’Orléans adopted the lunar map of Hevelius. The putti are observing the Moon with telescopes equipped with the “pantograph,” a perspectival tool devised by d’Orléans. 

Galileo Telescope replica ( ) The optics, leather and gold tooling of the telescope suggest how scientific instruments were crafted with a combination of engineering expertise and bookbinding arts. Galileo’s telescope included two lenses, an ocular lens near the eye, and an objective lens at the far end of the tube. 

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Paul E. Klopsteg Collection of the History and Technology of Archery, miscellaneous items. Klopsteg, Paul E. 

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Secret Book of the Quiver Ise, Heizo Sadatake (ca. 1846) Manuscript copy by Hajime Terai from original written in 1765 by Ise; illustrations copied by Odani. 

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Letters on Sunspots Galileo, (1613) In a 1611 book published by the Academy of the Lynx, the Jesuit astronomer Christoph Scheiner argued that sunspots are little planets circling the Sun like Venus. Galileo answered Scheiner with this book. 

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The Book on Air Hero of Alexandria, (1575) Once an altar is lighted, the temple doors open automatically. Hero fashioned all sorts of marvelous automata using steam, air pressure, hydraulics and falling weights. Devices included an automatic wine dispenser, siphons, garden fountains, engines, pumps, steampowered toys, and magic tricks... 

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The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass, 1606 Galilei, Galileo (1606) Featuring Galileo's Handwritting. Galileo dedicated the manual for his engineering compass to young Cosimo II de Medici, whom he had tutored in mathematics the previous summer. 

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Elements of Geometry, 1482 Euclid, (1482) Euclid was the starting point for a mathematical approach to physics. This is the 1st printed edition. The beautiful woodcuts are handcolored in this copy. The text of the first page was printed in both black and red ink. The geometrical diagrams were quite difficult to prepare. 

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On the Art of Fire Biringuccio, Vannoccio (1540) When Galileo needed to purchase plates of brass to make his engineering compass or commissioned glass to make better lenses, metalsmith, assayers and craftsmen in Venice employed operations similar to those described in Birunguccio’s metallurgical manual. 

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Natural Magic, 1589 Porta, Giambattista della (1589) In this postersized work, the first publication of observations made with a microscope, Cesi and Stelluti studied the anatomy of the bee. The text includes classical references to bees as well as new knowledge, integrated in a tabular outline. 

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Wonderful Machines of the Far West Schreck, Johann (1830) Schreck helped Galileo show the telescope to the Medici family and others in Rome. Once he arrived in China, he wrote this work on engineering in Chinese. 

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Galileo Compass replica Galileo’s engineering compass employed scales of his own innovative design, useful for an astonishing variety of calculations in the field. 

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Discourse on Floating Bodies Galileo, (1612) To provide entertainment at a dinner held by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Galileo debated the Aristotelian physicist Lodovico delle Columbe on the topic of floating bodies. Galileo employed Archimedes’ mathematical analysis. 

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Euclid's Elements of Geometry, 1594 AlTusi, Nasir adDin (1594) This Arabic text of Euclid came from the circle of the Persian astronomer alTusi (13th century). AlTusi worked in Baghdad and in the observatory of Maragha, in modern northwestern Iran. Printing Arabic with moveable type was a technological challenge. 

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On the Nature of Metals Agricola, Georg (1556) Agricola described early modern mining and metallurgy practices throughout the German speaking areas of Europe. The remarkable illustrations make this work a paramount example of how abundant visual representations in the Printing Revolution transformed science and technology. 

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On the Motion of Animals, 1685 Borelli, Giovanni (1685) This work of sports medicine analyzes the physics of bones and muscles. Borelli, a practicing mathematician and engineer as well as a physician, analyzed the musculoskeletal system in terms of the mechanics of the lever and other simple machines. 

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Natural Magick, 1658 Porta, Giambattista della (1658) In Natural Magick, della Porta described an optical tube he designed to make far things appear as though they were near. The field of optics was often associated with magical tricks and illusions, and for that reason sometimes held suspect among nonmathematicians. 

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School of the Stars Capra, Baldessar (1606) Galileo kept the design of his engineering compass carefully guarded, yet a dispute over intellectual property rights ensued. In 1607, Baldassar Capra published under his own name a Latin translation of Galileo's Compasso, including instructions for making the instrument. 

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Considerations on Galileo's Discourse on Floating Bodies Pannochieschi, Arturo (1612) Pannochieschi, head of the University of Pisa, defended Columbe, widening the debate over floating bodies and exemplifying the Aristotelian physicists’ reaction to Galileo’s use of Archimedean methods. In response, Galileo published a 2d ed. 

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On Pneumatics Porta, Giambattista della (1606) Della Porta explored various ideas for steam powered machines following the example of Hero of Alexandria. In antiquity, Hero fashioned marvelous automata using steam, air pressure, and hydraulics. 

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Euclide Tartaglia, Niccolo (1543) Tartaglia, a teacher of a teacher of Galileo, produced the first vernacular translation of Euclid’s Elements of Geometry. 

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Various and Ingenious Machines Ramelli, Agostino (1588) The ancient philosopher Hero described mechanics as the science of five simple machines: the lever, pulley, wheel, wedge and screw. These simple machines are combined in the complex inventions of Ramelli. 

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Response to the Opposition of Lodovico delle Colombe Galileo, (1615) Some of Galileo’s most avid opponents were Aristotelian physicists who, lacking training in mathematics, were unable to refute Galileo’s arguments. 

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Defense Against the Calumnies and Impostures of Baldessar Capra! Galileo, (1607) Featuring Galileo's Handwriting. Galileo published his second printed book to establish his priority rights and to inform Cosimo de Medici of the legal judgment against Capra. This copy, bound with the Compasso, is inscribed by Galileo to a Florentine physician. 

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Euclid's Elements of Geometry, 1589, vol. 1 Clavius, Christoph (1589) Not all versions of Euclid’s Elements were created equal. Clavius prepared this edition for his students at the Rome College (Collegio Romano). If these editions of Euclid were used in different courses, which course would you take? 

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The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass, 1635 Galilei, Galileo (1635) After Capra, the design of Galileo’s compass became widely known. Later editions included illustrations of Galileo’s instrument. 

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Galileo Thermoscope replica, National Weather Center Galileo’s thermoscope, ancestor to the thermometer: Galileo pioneered scientific investigations with the thermoscope along with his two Paduan friends, Giovanni Sagredo and Santorio Santorio. 

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On Fortifications Lorini, Buonaiuto (1597) Drawing upon Archimedes, Lorini asserted that all machines of the fortress could be reduced to the balance and thus to the lever. From his home in Padua, Galileo taught a private course on fortifications from about 1592 to 1609. 

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Discourse on Two New Sciences, vol. 1 Galileo, (1656) In this masterwork of physics, Galileo studied the two sciences of tensile strength and motion. The science of tensile strength considers how larger objects must bear more and more weight to perform the same action. 

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Euclid's Elements of Geometry, 1589, vol. 2 Clavius, Christoph (1589) Not all versions of Euclid’s Elements were created equal. Clavius prepared this edition for his students at the Rome College (Collegio Romano). If these editions of Euclid were used in different courses, which course would you take? 

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Description and Use of an Instrument, Called the Double Scale of Proportion Partridge, Seth (1692) After a century of calculating instrument innovation, Partridge created the sliderule. Edmund Gunter designed a logarithmic scale in 1620. William Oughtred placed two logarithmic scales sidebyside to perform multiplication and division in 1630. 

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Problems and Exercises in Aristotle’s Mechanics Baldi, Bernardino (1621) Aristotle’s Mechanics contained an analysis of the principles of motion and simple machines. While no longer accepted as an authentic work by Aristotle, its influence among Renaissance scientistengineers was profound, as illustrated in this commentary by Baldi. 

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Demonstration Slide Rule The slide rule is based on logarithms. With a slide rule, one may quickly and reliably calculate to a precision of about 3 digits. Until the pocket calculator became available in the mid1970‘s, slide rules were in constant use by scientists and engineers. 

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Galileo Thermoscope replica, Bizzell Memorial Library Galileo’s thermoscope, ancestor to the thermometer: Galileo pioneered scientific investigations with the thermoscope along with his two Paduan friends, Giovanni Sagredo and Santorio Santorio. 

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New Theater of Machines Zonca, Vittorio (1621) This “theater of machines” parades 40 different machines for any kind of purpose, whether a lock on a river, a book press or engraving press, or a device to prevent smoke from filling a room.Unlike the writings of Lorini and Galileo, which included theoretical investigations on the principles of... 

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Discourse on Two New Sciences, vol. 2 Galileo, (1656) In this masterwork of physics, Galileo studied the two sciences of tensile strength and motion. The science of tensile strength considers how larger objects must bear more and more weight to perform the same action. 

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Essays on Natural Experiences, 1666 Accademia del Cimento, (1666) The Academy of the Lynx (Accademia dei Lincei) dissolved after the death of its founder, Prince Federigo Cesi. In its place, Grand Duke Ferdinand II established the Academy of Experiment in Florence, which carried further the research program of Galileo. 

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Notes Lovelace, Ada (1843) These notes comprise one of the most important papers in the history of computing. Lovelace explained how Babbage’s “analytical engine,” if constructed, would amount to a programmable computer rather than merely a calculator. 

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Works, Archimedes Archimedes, (1543) Archimedes (d. 212 B.C.) developed the law of the lever with his Treatise on the Balance. He contributed to arithmetic by devising methods for expressing extremely large numbers. He deduced many new geometrical theorems on spheres, cylinders, circles and spirals. 

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New Science Tartaglia, Niccolo (1558) Tartaglia’s compass (also known as a “sector”) incorporated the functions of a quadrant and a caliper measuring device. His “new science” investigated the ballistics of cannonballs, laying a foundation for Galileo’s studies of projectile motion and free fall. 

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Essays on Natural Experiences, 1667 Accademia del Cimento, (1667) The Academy transformed the thermoscope into the thermometer by adding a graduated scale (which had been done by Galileo and his friends) and by sealing the tube to make it independent of air pressure. 

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Treatise on the Measuring Stick Orsini, Latino (1583) This book is Orsini’s manual for using a measuring stick instrument which he designed and called a “radio latino.” With its changing angles, multiple sight lines, and various scales, it was useful for making astronomical measurements, surveying uneven topography, measuring a cannon’s bore or... 

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Apple Computer (1984) The original 256K Macintosh computer was the first consumermarketed personal computer to support mouse input and a windowsbased graphical user interface. 

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Commentary on the Canon of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Santorio, Santorio (1646) Galileo’s physics, applied to medicine: Santorio Santorio (also known as Sanctorio or Sanctorius) practiced medicine in Padua, in the Venetian Republic. 

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On Conic Sections Apollonius, (1710) Apollonius (3rd century B.C.E.) examined the properties of conic sections; namely, the: • circle (cuts a cone horizontally, perpendicularly to the axis of the cone) • ellipse (cuts a cone to make a closed curve) • parabola (cuts a cone parallel to a side of the cone) • hyperbola (cuts a cone in... 

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Essays on Natural Experiences, 1701 Accademia del Cimento, (1701) The Academy crafted a hygrometer to measure humidity in the air. They improved the barometer, and conducted many experiments with air pressure. The Academy also experimented with light and phosphorescence, radiant heat, the velocity of sound and many other topics. 

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The Burning Mirror Cavalieri, Bonaventura (1632) Archimedes died defending the ancient city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily, from the Carthaginian navy. Reports attributed the defense of the city to his ingenuity, including giant mirrors capable of setting attacking ships in the harbor on fire. 

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Galileo Thermoscope replica, Bird Health Sciences Library Galileo’s thermoscope, developed in the context of pneumatic engineering, was an ancestor to the thermometer. Galileo pioneered scientific investigations with the thermoscope along with his two Paduan friends, Giovanni Sagredo and Santorio Santorio. 

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The Spectacle according to the Eye: Practical Optics Manzini, Carlo Antonio (1660) Galileo designed this lens grinding machine in 1639, when he was 75 years old. Galileo began grinding his own lenses as early as 1609. 

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Curious Technology Schott, Gaspar (1664) Schott was among the first to report the “Miracle of Magdeburg,” the sensational story of Otto von Guericke’s public demonstration of the reality of the vacuum. Von Guericke bolted two large hemispheres together, then evacuated the air inside them with his air pump. 

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Commentary on Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics Philoponus, (1504) In the 6th century, the Greek physicist and theologian Philoponus constructed an antiAristotelian theory of motion. For Philoponus, an “impressed incorporeal motive force” explains the motion of a top, a projectile, and falling bodies. 

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On the Motion of Animals, 1680  81 Borelli, Giovanni (168081) The physics of bones and muscles: Borelli, a practicing mathematician and engineer as well as a physician, analyzed the musculoskeletal system in terms of the mechanics of the lever and other simple machines. Borelli studied under Galileo’s student Castelli, along with Torricelli. 

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Mathematical Works Stevin, Simon (1634) Stevin’s work represents that of a scientistengineer in the Low Countries, whose major works appeared in Dutch. Like the scientistengineers of Italy, Stevin maintained water systems and improved fortifications. He investigated the mechanics of motion, falling bodies and hydraulics. 

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New Experiments von Guericke, Otto (1672) In this work, von Guericke explained the design of his air pump and recounted additional experiments conducted with it. He employed the barometer to forecast the weather, and invented an electrostatic generator. 

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New Experiments PhysicoMechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air Boyle, Robert (1660) Boyle, who heard of von Guericke’s experiments via Schott, retained Robert Hooke to construct a similar air pump for him. Boyle’s experiments supported his “corpuscular” view of matter, that air is comprised of particles in motion. 

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On the Center of Gravity of Solids, 1661 Valerio, Luca (1661) Analyzing the center of gravity of an object was a traditional problem addressed using the methods of Archimedes. Galileo referred to Valerio as “the Archimedes of our age” and recommended him for membership in the Academy of the Lynx. 

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On Perspective Monte, Guidobaldo del (1600) Kepler, Galileo and Guidobaldo were the leading optical theorists of their generation. Galileo studied with Guidobaldo while he was composing this treatise. 

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On the Body, 1662 Descartes, René (1662) The body in mechanical philosophy: Descartes applied the mechanical philosophy to every field of natural knowledge, including cosmology, meteorology, the Earth, astronomy and, in this book, the human body. 

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On Mechanics Monte, Guidobaldo del (1577) Hero described five simple machines: the lever, pulley, wheel, wedge and screw. In this theoretical investigation of the foundations of mechanics, Guidobaldo demonstrated that all five machines could be deduced from the principle of the lever. 

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On the Body, 1677 Descartes, René (1677) The illustration of the heart in this French edition shows a different artistic style than the Latin edition. 

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Living Anatomy von Hellwig, Christoph (1720) Four leaves of colored, interactive anatomical flaps appear throughout this popular anatomical textbook, which recapitulates the combination of art, engineering and anatomy in Galileo’s world. 

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Galileo, Mechanics Marsenne, Marin (1634) As a young scientistengineer, Galileo wrote two manuscripts on motion. The first, Delle macchine, written ca. 1592; reflected the tradition of Aristotle’s Mechanics. It was never printed. The second, revised study, Le mechaniche, written ca. 

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Mathematical Discourses Galileo , (1730) This is the first separate English edition of Galileo’s Discourse on Two New Sciences, his masterwork in mathematical physics. The “two new sciences” are tensile strength and motion. 

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Book of the Arrow Nobutoyo, (ca. 1846) Galileo’s mechanics demonstrated that projectiles follow a parabolic path. This is true whether the projectile is a cannonball, an arrow or a football. This set of four Japanese Samurai manuscripts, drawn on rice paper in the mid 1800’s, was copied by hand from mid16thcentury sources. 

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Book of Leggings Nobutoyo, (ca. 1846) Galileo’s mechanics demonstrated that projectiles follow a parabolic path. This is true whether the projectile is a cannonball, an arrow or a football. This set of four Japanese Samurai manuscripts, drawn on rice paper in the mid 1800’s, was copied by hand from mid16thcentury sources. 

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Secret Book of Hunger for the Target Ise, Heizo Sadatake (ca. 1846) Galileo’s mechanics demonstrated that projectiles follow a parabolic path. This is true whether the projectile is a cannonball, an arrow or a football. This set of four Japanese Samurai manuscripts, drawn on rice paper in the mid 1800’s, was copied by hand from mid16thcentury sources. 